Mosquitoes are bothersome, swarming, hitting insects, and some are carriers of malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, filariasis, and encephalomyelitis. Mosquitoes can be distinguished from other Diptera by their fragile, small appearance. Females have elongated mouth parts and a distinct proboscis well suited for piercing and sucking blood. Scales are found along the wing veins and along the lower wing margins.
The sexes can be distinguished by the antennae: in females they’re long and slender with a few short hairs; in the male they’re feathery and plumose. Close examination shows the antennae to be composed of 14 to 15 segments. The venation of the wings is also characteristic for mosquitoes and is useful in species identification. Mosquitoes are especially attracted to animals and man, especially to bright light and dark-colored clothes. The females are the blood suckers and can’t produce fertile eggs without ingesting blood. It is postulated that the blood supplies the serotonin and epinephrine required for creation of gonadotropic hormone by the mosquito, required for ovulation. These subsequently metamorphose into adults. Three genera-Anopheles, Aedes, Culex-transmit disease to man.
1. Mechanical methods
Wire screens for windows and doors. Mosquito nets. Animal barrier: Putting farm animals between the breeding places and human habitations would disagree mosquitoes (particularly zoophilic) from biting man.
2. Natural or physical methods (ecological interference)
Changing the environment so as to become unsuitable for the mosquitoe eg, drainage or filling of the breeding place. Shifting of water level, water current, PH.
3. Biological Procedures
Introduction of a natural enemy (predator): a fish (Gambusia affinis) feed on larvae and pupae; release of sterilized males (X-ray or chemical agents) which compete with men in character, mating with females. And resulting in decrease of the forth coming generation.
Used those against adults (adulticides). Insecticides act on contact being absorbed through the cuticle (contact toxin ). These are applied as space spray with an insecticide, which induces immediate knockdown of mosquitoes eg. And also by residual spray of resting places of adults (walls0 with an insecticide of extended action (residual insecticide) eg, hydrocarbons as DDT and Gammaxane, Organophosphorous compounds as Malathion and Diphterex, carbamates as sevin. The dvelopment of immunity is a drawback of insecticides
Specific agents can be applied against aquatic stages. These agents are applied to water surfaces. Pupae are not affected, as they don’t feed. Respiratory poison: employing non-volatile oils suffocates larvae and pupae by blocking the respiratory spiracles. Residual insecticides are sprayed water surface mixed with oil or dust. They exert their effect by ingestion and contact. Practically no single method alone is efficient in control. The joint use of two or more methods (integrated controller ) would provide a higher and more efficient level of abatement. Insects escaped method, are murdered by other.